See my CV for projects not listed here. You can access PDFs of my published papers here and several working papers here.


Landon Schnabel. 2016. “The Gender Pray Gap: Wage Labor and the Religiosity of High-Earning Women and Men.” Gender and Society 30(4). (PDF | Online Supplement )
  • Winner of the 2017 Association for the Sociology of Religion McNamara Award
  • Honorable Mention for the 2017 American Sociological Association Religion Section Distinguished Article Award
  • Winner of a 2016 North Central Sociological Association Student Paper Award
  • Winner of the 2015 Sociologists for Women in Society Cheryl Allyn Miller Award
  • Winner of the 2015 Schuessler Award for Best Article by an IU Sociology Student
  • Winner of the 2014 Society for the Scientific Study of Religion Student Paper Award

Abstract: Social scientists agree that women are generally more religious than men, but disagree about whether the differences are universal or contingent on social context. This study uses General Social Survey data to explore differences in religiosity between, as well as among, women and men by level of individual earned income. Extending previous research, I focus on high earners with other groups included for comparison. Predicted probabilities based upon fully-interacted models provide four key findings: (1) There are no significant gender differences among high earners; (2) high-earning women are less religious than low-earning women; (3) high-earning men are more religious than low-earning men; and (4) differences among women and among men at different earnings levels are just as large as average differences between women and men. Further analyses demonstrate that the relationship between gender, earnings, and religiosity varies by race. The findings demonstrate the utility of intersectional approaches for understanding gender differences in religiosity. Beyond the implications specific to the gender differences in religiosity literature, this study also indicates that religion is an important, yet often under-emphasized, aspect of our intersectional selves.

Landon Schnabel. 2016. “Gender and Homosexuality Attitudes across American Religious Groups from the 1970s to 2014: Similarity, Distinction, and Adaptation.” Social Science Research 55(1). (PDF)

Abstract: This study uses General Social Survey data to compare gender and homosexuality across American religious groups from the 1970s to 2014, examining three possible patterns for how evangelical attitudes relate to those of other groups: (1) they are similar; (2) they are different, but move together over time; (3) they are different and converge or diverge over time. Evangelical gender attitudes regarding work and family issues are more conservative than those of all other groups, but are adaptive to broad trends, changing at a rate similar to those of other groups. Evangelical attitudes toward the morality of homosexuality and same-sex marriage are more conservative than those of all other religious groups, and their rate of change is slower over time. Separate trends on the two issues suggest that gender and sexuality attitude change is decoupled, especially among evangelicals who are adapting more on gender while increasingly distinguishing themselves on same-sex relationships. A three-stage process of religious tension appears to characterize evangelical identity-building: (1) similarity, (2) distinction, and (3) adaptation.

Landon Schnabel. 2016. “Religion and Gender Equality Worldwide: A Country-Level Analysis.” Social Indicators Research 129(2). (PDF)

Abstract: Does religion help or hinder gender equality worldwide? Are some major world religions more conducive to equality than others? This study answers these questions using country-level data assembled from multiple sources. Much of the research on religion and gender has focused on the relationship between individual religious belief and practice and gender attitudes. This study, alternatively, compares the macro effects of the proportion of religious adherents in a country on two indicators of material gender equality: the United Nations Gender Inequality Index and the Social Watch Gender Equity Index. Comparing the world’s four largest religious groups reveals that the largest distinction is not between any of the three largest faiths—Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism—but between the religious and the non-religious. The more non-religious people in a country, the more gender equal that country tends to be. This finding holds when accounting for human development and other country-level factors, as well as in instrumental variable analysis.

Landon Schnabel and Eric Sevell. 2017. “Should Mary and Jane Be Legal? Americans’ Attitudes toward Marijuana and Same-Sex Marriage Legalization, 1988-2014.” Public Opinion Quarterly 81(1). (PDF)
  • Winner of the 2015 ASA Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco Section Graduate Student Paper Award

Abstract: Marijuana and same-sex marriage are two of the fastest changing and most widely debated opinion and policy issues in the United States. Research has examined public opinion on marijuana legalization and same-sex marriage legalization individually, but has neglected to examine these two issues together. We use General Social Survey data from 1988 to 2014 to compare four groups: (1) those who support neither; (2) those who support marijuana but not same-sex marriage legalization; (3) those who support marriage but not marijuana legalization; and (4) those who support both. This study provides four key findings: (1) marijuana and same-sex marriage attitudes have changed simultaneously; (2) most people hold these attitudes in tandem, and there has been a precipitous decline in the percentage of people who support legalizing neither and a remarkable increase in the percentage who support legalizing both; (3) attitudes toward both issues are liberalizing across all social and ideological groups, suggesting a society-wide redefinition of both behaviors as publicly accepted issues of individual autonomy; and (4) the support bases for marijuana and marriage legalization vary systematically by sociodemographic characteristics. We conclude that notions of individual autonomy may be increasingly important to the American public and their beliefs about what the government should regulate.

Andrew Halpern-Manners, Landon Schnabel, Elaine M. Hernandez, Judy L. Silberg, and Lindon J. Eaves. 2016. “The Relationship between Education and Mental Health: New Evidence from a Discordant Twin Study.” Social Forces 95(1). (PDF)

Abstract: Prior research has documented a strong and positive correlation between completed education and adults’ mental health. Researchers often describe this relationship using causal language: higher levels of education are thought to enhance people’s skills, afford important structural advantages, and empower better coping mechanisms, all of which lead to better mental health. An alternative explanation—the social selection hypothesis—suggests that schooling is a proxy for unobserved endowments and/or pre-existing conditions that confound the relationship between the two variables. In this article, we seek to adjudicate between these hypotheses using a relatively large, U.S.-based sample of identical adult twins. By relating within-twin-pair differences in education to within-twin-pair differences in mental health, we are able to control for the influence of genetic traits and shared family characteristics that may otherwise bias the estimates associated with educational attainment. Results from our analyses suggest that the observed association between education and mental health is attributable to confounding on unobserved variables. This finding holds across mental health conditions, is robust to several sensitivity checks, and survives a falsification test. Theoretical implications for the study of educational gradients in mental health are discussed.

Robbee Wedow, Landon Schnabel, Lindsey Wedow, and Mary Ellen Konieczny. 2016. “‘I’m Gay and I’m Catholic’: Negotiating Two Complex Identities at a Catholic University.” Forthcoming in Sociology of Religion. (PDF)

Abstract: This article examines the negotiation of sexual and religious identities among gay and lesbian students on a Catholic university campus. We explore context-specific identity negotiation to determine how and why, even in a time of increasing societal acceptance of sexual minorities, boundaries between faith and sexual identity persist. Through participant observation and interviews conducted with gay and lesbian students, we identify and discuss four identity categories based on whether students embrace or reject religious identities and sexual minority identities: (1) integrated (embrace both identities), (2) liberated (embrace sexual identity, reject religious identity), (3) embattled (embrace religious identity, reject sexual identity), and (4) disillusioned (uncertainty about both identities). We demonstrate that support from peers and (re)interpretations of official Church doctrine are key factors in the development and negotiation of sexual and religious identities. We conclude by discussing the implications of our research, including specific implications for religious higher education.


The following are data sources I am using or have used, listed in alphabetical order:

  • Add Health
  • American Community Survey
  • ARDA National Profiles
  • Baylor Religion Survey
  • Country-Level Data I Compiled from a Variety of Sources
  • General Social Survey
  • High School and Beyond
  • International Social Survey Programme
  • Original Experimental Survey Data Collected via GfK (formerly Knowledge Networks)
  • Original Experimental Survey Data Collected via MTurk
  • Original Interview Data
  • Original Survey Data Collected via Survey Sampling International
  • Pew Israel Survey
  • Portraits of American Life Study
  • Survey of Income and Program Participation
  • Textual Data (Political Party and Social Movement Documents)
  • U.S. Census
  • Virginia 30,000 Twin Study
  • World Values Survey

This page was last updated 2017-07-02